Category Archives: NFL Ties

NFL Parity Is Creating Excitement — And, Um, Ties

When Dak Prescott’s improbable pocket escape and 44-yard heave set up a field goal to tie Sunday night’s Cowboys-Texans game late in regulation, viewers were left with a familiar feeling: This game, like so many others this season, seemed destined for overtime. (Indeed, it did require OT — the Texans kicked a field goal in the extra frame to win 19-16.) It was the eighth overtime game of the 2018 season already — the most in the first five weeks of any NFL season since 2002, which also saw eight OT games. Along the way we’ve also gotten two ties, ensuring only the league’s fourth multi-tie campaign since it first introduced regular-season OT in 1974, and we narrowly missed three others thanks to game-ending scores in the waning seconds of the extra period.26 While the NFL still faces plenty of big-picture problems — and some fans are even lamenting the renewed prevalence of those dreaded ties — this wave of close finishes has mainly made last year’s complaints about boring football seem like a distant memory.
The spike in overtime contests is just one element of this year’s extra drama. According to ESPN’s Stats & Information Group, 52 of the league’s 78 games this season have seen the trailing team sit within one score of the leader with five minutes left in the game — the second-most in any season through five weeks since 2001.27 Furthermore, 47 games this season have been within a score with two minutes left to play in regulation. It’s a perfect recipe for wild endings like Sunday’s Panthers-Giants duel — which saw two lead changes in the final 68 seconds of play — or last week’s Raiders-Browns thriller, with its four separate game-tying or go-ahead scores in the fourth quarter and OT alone.
Speaking of overtime: It took a season to produce an effect, but in combination with so many close games, the league’s recent tweaks to the OT format have finally started to generate more of those aforementioned ties. Back in May 2017, my colleague Ty Schalter predicted that the NFL’s switch from 15- to 10-minute overtime periods (on top of its earlier decision to modify the sudden-death rule, giving the coin-flip loser a chance to answer if the winner kicked a FG on its opening drive) would dramatically hike the rate of tied games once OT was reached. Although we went an entire season without a tie in 2017 — only 14 games went into overtime at all, below the seasonal average of 16 since 200128 — this year has made up for lost time, with a quarter of OT games ending in a stalemate. And you thought draws were too common in the “other” version of football…
Anyway, all of this mainly speaks to the rise in parity across the league as a whole this year. Through five weeks, the Kansas City Chiefs rank No. 1 in FiveThirtyEight’s Elo ratings (our pet way of gauging how well a team is playing at any given moment in time), though their 1657 Elo isn’t especially high for an NFL leader at this stage of the season.29 At the other end of the rankings, the No. 32 Cleveland Browns (1344 Elo) are a lot better than the typical last-place team. You might say the Browns deserve better than 32nd place (I happen to agree), but choose an alternative — the Bills? Cardinals? Giants?? — and each has at least shown some signs of basic competency at various times this season. All of which is to say: The gap between the best and worst teams is not as wide as we’ve gotten used to it being.
And that shows up in the overall distribution of team performances this season. Since 1970, the standard deviation of teams’ Elo ratings through a season’s first five weeks has never been lower than it is right now:

Unlike college football, which is currently as imbalanced as ever, the pros have generally tended toward more competitive balance since the 1970s. That trend, though, largely leveled off once free agency and the introduction of a salary cap equalized each team’s spending, creating a parity machine that apparently only the New England Patriots — and conversely, until this year at least, the Browns — could resist. But even against that backdrop, this year’s Super Bowl race looks particularly wide open, with K.C. sitting nervously as tentative favorites.
In that department, we might gain some additional insight after Sunday night’s Patriots-Chiefs matchup, which rates as the best of the week in terms of matchup quality (as determined by the harmonic mean of the two teams’ Elo ratings in each game):

The best matchups of Week 6
Week 6 games with the highest average Elo rating using the harmonic mean plus the total potential swing for the two teams’ playoff chances, according to FiveThirtyEight’s NFL predictions

Playoff %

Playoff %

Team A
Current
Avg. Chg*
Team B
Current
Avg. Chg*
Total Change
Game Quality

KC
97.2%
+/-1.9
NE
70.0%
+/-11.7
13.6
1637

CIN
68.4
15.3
PIT
42.5
16.4
31.6
1554

BAL
51.5
16.1
TEN
56.9
14.0
30.1
1539

DAL
30.7
10.5
JAX
59.8
11.8
22.3
1530

CAR
59.7
13.2
WSH
29.8
12.1
25.3
1521

DEN
7.2
4.5
LAR
93.4
3.8
8.3
1513

ATL
22.7
9.8
TB
29.0
12.5
22.3
1509

ARI
3.6
2.9
MIN
51.0
10.3
13.2
1495

CHI
54.9
12.2
MIA
35.9
11.8
24.0
1490

NYG
4.6
4.1
PHI
61.4
11.4
15.5
1488

OAK
2.3
1.7
SEA
33.4
9.5
11.2
1468

GB
22.0
8.3
SF
6.5
4.5
12.8
1445

BUF
22.9
9.5
HOU
11.9
6.7
16.2
1439

CLE
3.2
2.7
LAC
51.7
12.3
15.0
1438

IND
5.5
3.4
NYJ
13.1
5.4
8.8
1419

Game quality is the harmonic mean of the Elo ratings for the two teams in a given matchup.
*Average change is weighted by the likelihood of a win or loss. (Ties are excluded.)
Source: ESPN.com

Of course, the Chiefs have tempted us to overreact after beating the Patriots before, so maybe we won’t actually learn as much as we might hope on Sunday. But Week 6 also offers a number of matchups that could move the playoff-odds needle by at least 20 combined percentage points — including Cincinnati vs. Pittsburgh, Baltimore vs. Tennessee and Carolina vs. Washington.
Out of all these tightly contested games, surely some will flirt with overtime (or maybe even a tie!) again. But more than just giving us yet another chance to jokingly compare stalemates on the gridiron with those on the soccer pitch, it’s a real sign of how evenly balanced the league has become so far this season.
FiveThirtyEight vs. the readers
Want another way to keep up with the league? Be sure to check out our constantly updating NFL prediction interactive, which uses Elo ratings to forecast the rest of the season. And if you think you’re smarter than Elo, now you can prove it: In our prediction game, you can pick against our model (and your fellow readers) for bragging rights and a place on our giant leaderboard.
Using your picks from last week, here’s our regular look at where Elo made its best — and worst — predictions against the field:

Elo’s dumbest (and smartest) picks of Week 5
Average difference between points won by readers and by Elo in Week 5 matchups in FiveThirtyEight’s NFL prediction game

OUR PREDICTION (ELO)
READERS’ PREDICTION

PICK
WIN PROB.
PICK
WIN PROB.
Result
READERS’ NET PTS

SEA
50%
LAR
70%
LAR 33, SEA 31
+13.5

PHI
70
PHI
58
MIN 23, PHI 21
+12.8

BAL
76
BAL
66
CLE 12, BAL 9
+11.3

DAL
61
HOU
50
HOU 19, DAL 16
+9.6

SF
66
SF
59
ARI 28, SF 18
+7.2

CIN
63
CIN
64
CIN 27, MIA 17
-1.2

NE
83
NE
83
NE 38, IND 24
-2.0

NO
73
NO
71
NO 43, WSH 19
-3.1

CAR
80
CAR
76
CAR 33, NYG 31
-3.4

LAC
73
LAC
69
LAC 26, OAK 10
-3.9

KC
68
KC
61
KC 30, JAX 14
-7.7

PIT
57
PIT
51
PIT 41, ATL 17
-7.9

NYJ
56
DEN
56
NYJ 34, DEN 16
-14.3

DET
60
GB
56
DET 31, GB 23
-17.4

BUF
52
TEN
62
BUF 13, TEN 12
-17.8

Home teams are in bold.
The scoring system is nonlinear, so readers’ average points don’t necessarily match the number of points that would be given to the average reader prediction.

Elo eked out another victorious week over the readers, winning by 24.3 net points on average. It’s been an unusually impressive start to the season for Elo, whose built-in lack of knowledge over the NFL’s offseason comings and goings hasn’t seemed to hamper it one bit. (Maybe this is a nice reminder that preseason NFL predictions are mostly useless.) In Week 5, Elo was too high on the Seahawks, Eagles and Ravens, all of whom fell short. But it made up for those bad picks by calling Buffalo’s win over Tennessee and Detroit’s victory over Green Bay, among other games.
But Elo didn’t make all of our readers look silly. Congrats to reader Paul Diaz, who led all users in points for Week 5, and to Jevon Mallett, who leads all users on the season in total. Thanks to everyone who played last week — and if you didn’t play, get in on the game already! You can make picks now and still try your luck against Elo, even if you missed the first quarter of the season.
Check out our latest NFL predictions.